Etymological Naughtiness

From our favorite etymological blogger Dr Anatoly Liberman.

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Persian or Farsi?

In recent years, there has been a growing tendency to refer to Persian as Farsi.

Persian, the term used for centuries in the West, originated in a region of southern Iran formerly known as Persis. It was the language of the Parsa, an Indo-European nomadic people who migrated into the region about 1000 BC. The older forms of the language are known as Old and Middle Persian. Old Persian was spoken until approximately the 3rd century BC and Middle Persian, or Pahlavi, was spoken from the 3rd century BC to the 9th century AD. (1)

The use of the names Persia and Persian were gradually extended by the ancient Greeks and other Western peoples to apply to the Iranian Plateau and the official language in the region respectively. New Persian is closely related to these ancient forms. Persian became the lingua franca of the region during the Islamic period. It was the official language of countries such as India for many centuries during which time numerous annals, chronicles, and court volumes of poetry were compiled outside Iran. (2)

In recent years the word Farsi, the Arabized form of Parsi, the name of the language in Persian, has become the standard word used by many English and non-English speakers to refer to modern Persian. Some Iranian authorities have actually encouraged this and have engaged in a systematic attempt to change the name of the language in the international communities to Farsi. (3)

This attempt to replace the word “Persian” with “Farsi” is not only incongruous with the history of the language but also creates confusion and misunderstanding. While the use of the word Farsi is a political statement for some Iranian authorities, for others it may indicate a lack of knowledge about the history of this language. It indicates that those who carelessly promote the use of the word Farsi are indeed engaging in an equivocal representation of this language and may not, by any means, be promoting Iranian culture.

Three main groups use the word Farsi instead of Persian while speaking English: non-Iranians who are somewhat familiar with the country and its culture; second-generation Iranians who know some Persian, and Iranians, including some officials, who do not have a sound knowledge about their culture and language.

The first two groups find it more confortable to refer to the language as Farsi and the third group finds it more politically correct to do so. In either case they do not do justice when they try to change the name of this language in English.

No matter who does it, there are three reasons why it is a mistake to refer to the Persian language as Farsi. First, it is ignoring the above historical facts about this language. It is as incorrect as calling the Persian Gulf as the Farsi Gulf. Moreover, the name Farsi is obscure and under the best conditions refers only to certain dialects .

Second, the use of word Farsi in English strikes a discordant tone to the native speaker. Imagine someone speaking in English about their recent trip to Paris saying, “I went to Paris and there I spoke Francais.” To use the word Farsi has the same impact and may sound not only pretentious at times but also destructive of English syntax.

Third, the word Persian in the mind of an English speaker, consciously or not, recalls many other historical and cultural legacies about Iran. Persian is closely associated with Persian poetry, Persian carpets, Persian cats, Persian poetry, Persian pistachios, and so on. When you refer to this language as Persian, the audience may associate it with one or more of these relevant ideas. On the contrary, the word Farsi not only voids these historical and cultural associations, but it also adds to the recent portrayal of Iran as a strange and distant society.

We should therefore avoid the use of the word Farsi instead of Persian (ou Persan en francais) because it not only violates historical fact but also some of the regularities of the language in which we speak. I believe that Persian is the true and proper name of this language in foreign tongues and international communities and changing it does not benefit the representation of Iranian culture.

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Notes:
1. See Ehsan Yarshater, “Zaban-i Nozohur” IrnianShenasi: A Journal of Iranian Studies, IV, I (Spring, 1992), 27-30; “Iran Ra dar Zabanha-ye Khareji Cheh Bayad Khand?” Rahavard: A Journal of Iranian Studies, V & VI, 20/21 (Summer & Fall, 1988), 70-75; and Nam-e Keshvar-e Ma Ra dar Zaban-e Engelisi Cheh Bayad Khand?” Rahavard, VIII, 29, (Spring, 1992), 22-26.
2. See Edward G. Browne, A Literary History of Persia (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1902-4) and Jan Rypka, History of Iranian Literature (Dordrecht, Holland, 1968)
3.English language journals published in Iran., text books published by the Ministry of Islamic Culture and Guidance, and materials published for tourists often refer to Persian as Farsi.

Please also see:
point:
Persian NOT Farsi by Ali Parandeh
and counterpoint:
I Speak Farsi by Sussan Tahmasebi

Pucker up, butter cup…

Pass the breath mints, please! It is time to talk about philematology – you may know it better as kissing. While kissing is a loving act and feels ph-so-good, it has a whole spectrum of health benefits.

Kissing is good for the soul. The rush often felt from kissing comes from two natural stimulants: dopamine and norepinephrine, which can make us go from stressed-out to relaxed. The effects of kissing can also be likened to the calming effects of meditation.

Kissing is even good for the skin! A French kiss can exercise all the underlying muscles in the face, which some say could keep you looking younger and happier. And we all know the benefits of massage, so grab someone and massage a much ignored part of the face, the lips!

Birds do it, bees do it…whether it’s a friendly kiss or a serious session of mouth-to-mouth, why not engage in your own philematology session?

The science of kissing is called philematology.

A one-minute kiss burns 26 calories! A long kiss makes the metabolism burn sugar faster than usual.

A little pucker uses just two muscles around the lips. A passionate kiss (think Diego Luna!) uses all 34 facial muscles.

When we kiss, our hearts beat faster and our breathing becomes deep and irregular, mimicking the response of intense exercise. So if done right, kissing can be considered a great cardiovascular workout! At the same time it’s a terrific tension reliever. You shut out the world, you close your eyes and you’re almost smiling.

One theory says that social kissing originated with medieval knights as a way to find out if their wives had been drinking while they were away fighting.

The average person will spend an estimated two weeks of their lives kissing!

Ancient Egyptians kissed with their noses. Eskimos, Polynesians and Malaysians still do.

The longest documented kiss is 29 hours by contestants in 1998 in New York.

Our brains have special neurons than help us find each other’s lips in the dark.

Kissing signals our brain to produce oxytocin, a hormone that makes us feel good. It’s a scientific fact that biology causes one kiss to prompt another!

FYI:
Science of Kissing
Do You Practice Philematology?